Small employer HRAs or QSEHRAs (Qualified Small Employer Health Reimbursement Arrangements) allow small businesses without group health plans to set aside money, tax-free, for employees to use toward medical expenses – including the cost of buying health insurance. Here’s what small business owners need to know about QSEHRAs.
Included in the 21st Century Cures Act enacted by Congress on December 13, 2016, was a provision for QSEHRAs, which permit an eligible employer to provide a qualified small employer health reimbursement arrangement (QSEHRA), which is not a group health plan and thus is not subject to the requirements that apply to group health plans.
QSEHRAs must meet several criteria such as:
- The arrangement is funded solely by an eligible employer, and no salary reduction contributions may be made under the arrangement;
- The arrangement generally is provided on the same terms to all eligible employees of the employer;
- The arrangement provides, after the employee provides proof of coverage, for the payment or reimbursement of medical expenses incurred by the employee or the employee’s family members; and
- The amount of the payments and reimbursements for any year do not exceed inflation-adjusted amounts for payments and reimbursements of expenses. For 2022, the maximum dollar amount for employee-only arrangements is $5,450. The maximum dollar amount for arrangements that provide for payments and reimbursements for expenses of family members is $11,050.
Which Employers Qualify?
Any small employer from a startup to a nonprofit that doesn’t offer a group health plan is able to set up a QSEHRA as long as they meet certain rules (see below). Small employers are defined as an employer that is not an applicable large employer (ALE). An applicable large employer is defined as one that employs more than 50 full-time workers, including full-time equivalent employees, on average.
If a small employer currently offers a group health plan but wants to set up a QSEHRA, the group health plan must be canceled before the QSEHRA will start.
Are There Any Other Rules?
Yes. One of the most important rules is that in order for employees to participate in a QSEHRA, they must have health insurance that meets minimum essential coverage. That is, indemnity, short-term health insurance, and faith-based insurance plans (e.g., Liberty HealthShare) do not qualify. Health insurance plans purchased through the Marketplace meet this qualification. Employers may choose whether to reimburse employees for both medical expenses and health insurance premiums or just premiums.
Furthermore, while there are no minimum monthly contribution limits, there is an annual maximum contribution limit. For 2022, the limit is $454.16 per month for individuals and $920.83 per month for families.
QSEHRAs are funded entirely by the employer. As such, employees are prohibited from making contributions.
Written Notice to Employees
Eligible employers are required to provide written notice to eligible employees at least 90 days before the beginning of a year for which the QSEHRA is provided. In the case of an employee who is not eligible to participate in the arrangement as of the beginning of the year, the written notice must be furnished on the date on which the employee is first eligible. The written notice must include:
- A statement of the amount that would be the eligible employee’s permitted benefit under the arrangement for the year;
- A statement that the eligible employee should provide that permitted benefit amount to any health insurance exchange to which the employee applies for advance payments of the premium tax credit; and
- A statement that if the eligible employee is not covered under minimum essential coverage for any month, the employee may be liable for an individual shared responsibility payment (eliminated for tax years starting in 2019) for that month and reimbursements under the arrangement may be includible in gross income.